Culture

The controversies that it had to maintain due to its fame never altered its basic serenity, in spite of its sensitive and combative character. By its immense culture and doctrinal punctuality, and also by its religious fervor, Surez pius received the doctor name eximius ET, is the most eminent representative of the scholastic barroca. Writing simultaneously against the Protestantism, that the divine right of the sovereigns defended, and against all the more or less cynical naturalists, the one Of legibus analyzes in the first place the law generally, later to study the diverse classes of laws and the questions that these provoke. The analysis of the sovereignty principle much more is advanced that in the authors who preceded to him. In the work of Surez, the power is given by God to all the political community and not only to tal o cual person: against the cesarismo and the legal experts, the maquiavelismo and the luteranismo, Surez elaborate, to sum up, the theory of the democracy, that fidei deepens more in its Defender. The social contract or pact notion appears in the doctor eximius already: political community constitutes by the one first restrictive practice between individuals or families; this one can delegate the power to a group or a single person, by means of a second pact, that God leaves our discretion. As a rule, the democracy, that is to say the direct government of the town by the town, will be the most natural form of government, and it does not need a particular institution, because it is according to the spontaneity of our being.

Still more, the one Of legibus is methodically dedicated to found the international right. In her the human sort is conceived like which it forms a specific unit not only, but moral and even political. Or there, the evangelical rule of universal love to our fellow, without mother country or race distinction, invites to us to consider the humanity like a single body. But there is more: although each S-state a perfect and self-sufficient community, has, to a certain extent, necessity of the other States, either to satisfy tal o cual deficiency, or to increase their possibilities. Therefore, each national group form leaves from community international, that is superior to that one, natural and morally. Of all of which follows that an international right is indispensable to govern this universal society. This right has two sources first of all, the natural right, arisen from the reason; later, the right of people, arisen from the local and particular uses of each nation, that comes to will complete the natural right in innumerable points.

Surez instead of to reject, like the majority of the humanists, the tradition of four centuries hefts scholastic and discusses it to point by point, separating carefully the valid elements of the expired ones. And as Andalusian said to the philosopher: ” The political community is free by natural right and she is not subject to any man outside her, but she herself in her totality has the political power that is democratic while not cambie.” Francisco Aryan Soli’s The future gains, gaining the freedom. Vestibule of Internauts by La Paz and the Freedom and of Free Forum.

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